Elements and phases of a construction
Elements and phases of a construction
GENERAL PHASES OF CONSTRUCTION
There are countless types of buildings that are governed by different factors ranging from the type of soil, climate, to the budget available for the project. From the time the first stone is laid until the construction project of a building is completed, there are different phases that should not be missed, such as the following:
Let’s start with the previous phase, which is the whole issue of permits and documentation that must be complete and approved, in all that go the flat contracts and there must also be the review of expenses in general.
From there we go to the foundation stage, which begins with the review or verification and cleaning and excavation of the land, since, in general, the top layer of the land is removed and the contents are reserved for reuse in other areas, in addition the foundations and plumbing are installed, that is when the foundations are poured.
We continue with the structure, which is to make the skeleton of the building that leads to the walls with its specific compositions of partitions, among others; including ceilings, air conditioning, windows, some decorations and doors, thus it will be ready for only missing the skin of the building.
This leads us to the electrical and mechanical plumbing; this includes pipes, drains, ducts, air conditioning, wiring, lighting, and so on.
Then we determine if special installations are required such as elevators or elevators, laundry ducts and cistern waste, extractors and solar panels because if they are required they are installed at once. We reach the final point of the project where the details and finishes are installed, in addition to testing all the existing systems.
All these stages can vary according to the type of construction, since there are modifications for ecological or sustainable constructions.
REGULAR FACTORS OF BUILDINGS
But within all the differences and particular characteristics there are factors that buildings share, which are the following:
The foundations are those that give support and stability to the building and are the lowest part of the structure. The structure, which is the skeleton with its elements, also uses frames or trusses with its main elements such as the horizontal planes that divide the building vertically into floors and are composed of concrete filling, beams and iron mesh, which we know as slabs.
We also have the pillars, whose function is to support the floor slabs, following with the horizontal elements that support the weight of these and channel it to the pillars. Similarly, the load-bearing walls are the most important parts since they support the weight of the other structural elements.
Building structures are subjected to different stress, torsion, tensile and bending tests and it is very important that they comply with the stability tests, which indicate that the building will not collapse, and the stiffness tests, which indicate that it will not deform.
The exterior walls are what give the building its appearance, in addition to working together with the supporting structure. Interior partitions are the interior walls of the building, to separate each floor into the different rooms: rooms, landings and corridors. Vertical transportation systems are those that allow someone to move from one floor of the building to another by means of stairs and elevators.
Communication devices allow communication between different areas of the building and between the building, intercoms are a clear example. Supply systems include electricity supply, water supply and waste disposal or drainage.
STANDARDS TO BE APPLIED IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY
All these are the elements and parts of a building for the construction of high-rise buildings, for this it is necessary to buy elevating platforms and have the best kinds of scaffolding.
It is very important to mention that the most important thing for these constructions to be resistant, reliable and durable, is that in addition to a good planning of the project we have excellent quality materials.
All these stages can be described and monitored in a quality, environmental and safety management system or with a comprehensive management system that meets the requirements of the different international standards such as ISO 9001:2015, ISO 14001:2015 and ISO 45001:2018.
Having implemented and certified management systems provides certainty to customers, as well as reflecting a better business perspective. In addition, an evaluation of suppliers can be carried out to meet the requirements of the company or client that evaluates them.
Having a certification in ISO standards opens the doors to growth, certify your company with QAlliance, we have qualified personnel to provide you with a service focused on your needs.